2 what is the most important factor you consider when deciding to promote a product or service ie ca
This chapter is an introduction to EU regulations related to food safety, and animal and plant health. EU legislation on food safety governs production, labelling and tracking through the supply chain. The EU also regulates the safety of imported food. EU food legislation and import requirements are constantly evolving.
It is essential to check the food-safety section of the European Commission website for the most recent requirements. Food legislation includes rules that are common to all foodstuffs such as rules on hygiene and legislation on specific products e. EU legislation establishes official controls along the food chain, namely Regulation N. On 13 December , EU rules on food labelling changed.
Some products will also be subject to new labelling standards for listing product origin; the labels of unprocessed frozen meat and fishery products must indicate date of freezing.
If you export foodstuffs to the EU, you have to make sure that the packaging complies with the EU requirements for food contact materials. They must be manufactured in line with good manufacturing practices regulation N. They must not transfer their constituents to the food in quantities that could endanger human health, change the composition of the food or change the odour or taste of the food. The regulation establishes a list of materials and articles such as plastics, ceramics, glass, etc.
The list includes authorized substances, purity standards, special conditions of use, provisions for ensuring traceability, rules for the authorization of substances, etc.
The symbol identifies that the material used in the product is safe for food contact. A practical way to start exporting products of animal origin to the EU is to contact the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. For more information, please see the EU factsheet on plant health control. EU phytosanitary requirements also apply to wood used as packaging. Under EU rules, wood packaging materials cases, boxes, crates, pallets, etc. Canadian Food Inspection Agency — Phytosanitary certificates.
The single market for products is achieved through EU-wide harmonized rules that ensure product safety and allow goods to be sold anywhere in the EU. For most products, the legislation is limited to essential safety and health requirements, and leaves the technical details to voluntary European harmonized standards. The CE mark does not apply to foodstuffs, motor vehicles, chemicals, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and biocides, which all have their own specific rules.
The directive requires manufacturers to place only safe products on the market. Market-surveillance activities are carried out by member states. For any given product, this can result in marketing restrictions, withdrawals or recalls. The CE mark certifies that a product has been assessed and meets all EU requirements for safety, health and environmental protection before being put on the market. The CE mark is mandatory for certain product groups such as electronics, medical devices and construction products.
The European Commission website currently lists 25 categories of products requiring the CE mark:. In some cases, more than one category can apply to a single product. Furthermore, it should be noted that it is illegal to use the CE mark on a product that does not fall into one of these categories. If you are a manufacturer established in Canada, you have the same obligations as EU manufacturers: Your importer will have to verify that you have undertaken the necessary steps and that the documentation is available upon request.
You may appoint an authorized representative established in the EU to carry out certain administrative tasks on your behalf. It is mandatory to appoint an authorized representative only for medical devices. You are advised to define clearly in writing the tasks delegated to your representative. On the European Commission website, you will find a search tool that will help you find the directive s applicable to your product, as well as the guidance documents for each product type.
Your product must comply with the relevant essential requirements of the applicable directives. Essential requirements are mandatory health, safety, and environmental protection requirements that products must meet to be placed on the EU market.
European Harmonized Standards are issued with reference to the applied directives, and express in detailed technical terms the essential requirements. Full compliance with harmonized standards gives a product the presumption of conformity with the relevant essential requirements. The use of harmonized standards is voluntary. You are free to choose other ways to fulfill the essential requirements. However, European standards are a reliable way to ensure compliance.
Whenever possible, Canadian exporters are advised to follow harmonized standards. You can buy copies of the harmonized standards documents from national members of the European Standards Organisations: Notified Bodies are authorized third-party conformity-assessment bodies. For some products, a notified body must be involved in testing and certification. This is clearly indicated in the directives.
Conformity assessment is the process, carried out by the manufacturer, to demonstrate whether a product fulfills its specified requirements. Conformity assessment involves various checks on the design and manufacture of products. Full details about conformity-assessment procedures referred to as modules are included in the annexes of the directives. Conformity assessment is the responsibility of the manufacturer, regardless of whether the manufacturer self-assesses possible for most products or involves a notified body.
For detailed guidance on conformity assessment, see the Blue Guide on the implementation of EU product rules. The technical file must be kept for ten years and made available to European authorities for control purposes.
Is a formal declaration, signed by the manufacturer or an authorized representative, that the product meets all requirements of applicable directive s. The Declaration of Conformity DoC must be kept with the technical file. Some directives require products to be accompanied by the DoC. A DoC must be in the official language of the country of import into the EU.
Affixing the CE Mark: The CE mark must be affixed by the manufacturer or authorised representative. See EU guidance on how to reproduce the CE mark. CE marking web page and CE marking Brochure. REACH makes industry responsible for managing risks that chemicals may pose to health and the environment, and for providing relevant information to users along the supply chain.
REACH affects virtually every industrial sector from automotive, aerospace, plastics and cosmetics to aluminum, household cleaners, computers and textiles. REACH applies to all categories of chemical substances manufactured, imported or used in the EU, with only a few limited exemptions.
REACH also applies to chemicals contained in preparations and in finished products articles. If you are a Canadian business with a presence in Europe, you have the same obligations as an EU business. To protect confidential business information, you may choose to appoint an Only Representative established in the EU to fulfill the obligations of importers under REACH.
REACH obligations vary based on the substance, its properties and tonnage, and on the role of the company in the supply chain. This introduction describes the main obligations and provides links to more information. For substances produced or imported in quantities of one ton or more per year per company legal entity , EU manufacturers and importers must submit a registration dossier to the European Chemicals Agency ECHA with information on the properties, uses and classification of the substance, as well as guidance on safe handling.
For quantities of ten tons and more, companies must also submit a safety assessment. See the ECHA website for more information on the content of the registration dossier. The registration process for chemicals already placed on the market before the entry into force of REACH started in , with various registration deadlines imposed on businesses. The next deadline is May 31, for the registration of substances manufactured or imported in quantities between 1 and tons per year.
REACH requires that manufacturers and importers of identical substances cooperate by sharing data and submitting joint registrations, although companies must still register some information separately.
Industry groups have set up consortia to generate the necessary data for joint registration. REACH Evaluation enables authorities to determine whether further testing is needed and whether registration dossiers comply with requirements.
These include carcinogens and substances that persist in the environment, and are listed on the REACH Candidate List of substances of very high concern. EU manufacturers, importers and downstream users of chemicals can apply for authorization.
Authorization is a complex process; companies must show that the risks to health and the environment are adequately controlled or that the socio-economic benefits outweigh the risks and there are no suitable substitutes. It is important to identify any substance likely to be considered an SVHC, as they may be withdrawn from the market or banned. Suppliers of chemicals and chemical preparations must communicate information about hazards, use and risks to downstream users, distributors and consumers.
These must be prepared by manufacturers or importers for all dangerous substances or mixtures in accordance with REACH Annex II Guidance on the compilation of safety data sheets and passed down the supply chain. Information about hazardous chemicals in finished products must be communicated through the supply chain under certain conditions.
The European Chemicals Agency must also be notified if an article contains a substance on the Candidate List. REACH requires that EU manufacturers and importers classify and label all substances subject to registration and authorization, and submit this information to the EU Classification and Labelling Inventory , a database managed by the European Chemicals Agency.
Classification and labeling rules are governed by the CLP regulation on the classification, labeling and packaging of substances and mixtures see Chapter 5. Biocidal products contain active substances and are used against harmful organisms such as pests and bacteria. They include disinfectants, repellents, insecticides, wood and material preservatives, and anti-fouling paints. The authorization of biocidal products for the EU market involves two steps: The regulation introduces new procedures for the approval of biocidal products at the EU level, along with mandatory data-sharing provisions and new requirements for treated articles e.
This has important implications for exporters to the EU; articles can be treated only with active substances approved in the EU. There are also labelling requirements for some treated articles. The most important changes include:.
Other safety elements of the new regulation relate to the composition and labelling see Chapter 5 of cosmetic products. The regulation contains lists of banned and restricted substances. Colorants, preservatives and UV filters, including nanomaterials, must be explicitly authorized. Restrictions on ingredients are also listed on the EU cosmetics CosIng database.
Ban on animal testing: Since March 11, , new cosmetic products and ingredients sold in the EU must not have been tested on animals, even if the testing takes place outside the EU. See the European Commission website for more information on alternative methods to animal testing. To enter the EU, medicinal products for human use must be authorized at either the member state or EU level. Authorizations are granted only to applicants established in the EU.
A Canadian company without a presence in the EU must use an EU-based importer or representative to market any pharmaceutical product in the EU. Under the centralized authorization procedure, companies may submit a single application to the European Medicines Agency EMA. After scientific evaluation by the EMA, the European Commission authorizes the marketing of medicines, in all member states.
At the member-state level, companies have the choice between the decentralized procedure companies apply for a marketing authorization of a medicinal product simultaneously in several countries with one member state being the reference country , and the mutual-recognition procedure companies that have a medicine authorized in only one country can then apply for that specific authorization to be recognized in other member states. Simplified authorization procedures exist for homeopathic medicinal products and traditional herbal medicinal products.
Canada and the EU mutually accept results of inspections of manufacturers. A multitude of product labels exist in the EU: EU and national labels, mandatory and voluntary labels, environmental, energy, food, cosmetic labels, etc. This section is a general introduction to the most common labels. Country-specific labelling and packaging requirements should be checked for each market. See Chapter 4 for information about the CE mark and Chapter 3 for information about food labelling.
As a general rule, labels must be in the official language s of the country where the product is sold. Multi-language labelling is allowed throughout the EU. Any package containing substances or mixtures classified as hazardous must be clearly labelled with the following information CLP Article The new hazard pictograms on a white background replace the previous ones. Substances have been subject to the new provisions since Mixtures, which represent the vast majority of products on the market, will be subject to the new provisions as of June 1, Products may have to be re-labelled to comply with the new regulation.
The symbols, from left to right, refer to: The CLP legislation covers chemical substances and mixtures composed of two or more chemical substances, including consumer items such as paints and detergents. Note that the CLP regulation does not apply to medicinal and cosmetic products, medical devices, waste and foodstuffs.
Energy labels are mandatory for all appliances sold in the EU. The directive, initially established for household appliances, has since been extended to include energy-related products in the commercial and industrial sectors. The A class green is the most efficient.
The directive applies to a wide range of electrical and electronic consumer appliances as well as certain professional equipment:.
After a transitional period ending in , the legislation will apply to all electrical and electronic equipment EEE.
To comply, companies must either join a Producer Compliance Scheme or operate a waste-management plan. European Commission DG Environment website. Both containers and packaging must be clearly marked with the following information:. Special provisions apply to small products that are difficult to label.
The symbol showing a hand pointing at a book indicates that a leaflet accompanying the product lists relevant information.
Product Safety covers EU requirements for the composition and marketing of cosmetic products. The Ecolabel is awarded to products with reduced environmental impacts throughout their lifecycles. The products must comply with criteria related to energy consumption and pollution. Criteria exist for more than 20 product types including detergents, shampoos, footwear, textiles, paints, paper, computers and wooden furniture.
Ecolabel product groups and criteria are posted to the Commission DG Environment website. Energy Star is a voluntary energy-efficiency labelling programme run by the U. Energy Star labels are not as widely used in Europe as they are in North America. Qualified products are, so far, limited to computers, displays and imaging equipment. Labels must be clearly visible on product packaging and reference the certification control body.
The use of the EU organic production logo is mandatory for organic pre-packaged foods produced in the EU; it is voluntary for any organic products imported into the EU. Canadian Food Inspection Agency — Organic products. See Regulation EC N. The directive applies to packages within the five gram to ten kilogram range or five millilitres to ten litres. Containers with the e-mark must also indicate the quantity weight or volume of the product.
European Commission, DG Enterprise. The directive sets environmental requirements for the design and manufacture of packaging, including restrictions on certain heavy metals.
The directive makes industry responsible for the collection and recycling of packaging waste. The Green Dot on packaging indicates that the company has joined a packaging-recycling scheme in accordance with the directive.
For more information about the Green Dot fee and application process, consult the Pro Europe website. Pro Europe is the umbrella organization for European packaging, and packaging waste-recovery and recycling schemes. EU legislation protects consumers buying goods and services.
This section covers EU requirements related to consumer contracts and data protection. Since June 13, , the new directive gives consumers the right to change their minds within two weeks of receiving goods purchased online, and requires online traders to provide clear information to consumers. The changes introduced include:. European Commission DG Justice web page on consumer rights. Consumers have two years to request repair or replacement if the goods are not in conformity with the sales contract i.
The seller must repair or replace faulty goods free of charge. If repair or replacement is not possible or impractical, consumers may request a refund or price reduction. The two-year legal guarantee applies from the date of delivery. Additional commercial guarantees must be clearly drafted and indicate any additional rights.
Note that legislation in some countries provides guarantees longer than the one specified in the European Product warranty directive.
European Commission DG Justice web page on sales and guarantees. It requires member states to allow the transfer of personal data such as name, e-mail address, bank details, etc. For more information, please see the Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada web page. Endorsed by the European Parliament in March , the reform is expected to be fully approved by the end of European Commission DG Justice webpage.
Intellectual Property IP consists of industrial property patents, trade marks, designs and literary and artistic property copyrights. Intellectual property rights IPR enable inventors, designers and authors to decide how their inventions and creations are used. The EU has two intellectual-property bodies: The EU protects intellectual property rights against piracy, illegal trade and counterfeiting. The EU is currently preparing rules for the protection of trade secrets.
Intellectual property rights are territorial; registration of intellectual property in Canada provides no protection in Europe. If you are considering exporting to the EU, it is recommended that you secure professional advice to protect intellectual-property rights. Many of them have associate firms in Europe. Ensure you protect your intellectual property before entering the EU market. This chapter does not constitute legal advice. It is an introduction to steps you can take to register your IPR in Europe.
A patent is a legal title that can be granted for any invention having a technical character provided that it is new, involves an inventive step and can be used in industrial application. Patents offer protection for 20 years. Patent law protects new inventions. It will soon be possible to obtain a European Patent, effective in all EU member states with the exception of Italy and Spain. The aim is to create more legal certainty by avoiding parallel litigation before multiple national courts, which could result in divergent interpretations and rulings.
Trademarks are the indications, such as words, phrases, logos and sounds, used by companies to identify and distinguish their products or services from those of their competitors. With a single registration, the Community Trademark offers protection in all 28 EU countries. The EU is currently revising its trademark system to make it cheaper for businesses and to provide better protection against counterfeiting. More information on the revision of the trademark system is available on the EC website.
The EU also maintains a database of geographical indications typically place names that may conflict with trademarks. Geographical indications often identify products that originate in, and have the characteristics associated with, particular places, such as Parma Ham or Champagne.
A Registered Community Design is valid for five years and can be renewed up four times a total of 25 years. Copyright is automatic and requires no formal registration process; copyright protection begins upon creation of the work. In the EU, copyright protection lasts for 70 years after the death of the creator.
Some member states have national copyright-registration systems. While not mandatory, these systems are helpful in the event of disputes. Canadian Intellectual Property Office. With the Canada-European Union Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement CETA , Canadian businesses have greater access to public-procurement opportunities with EU institutions and the national, regional and local governments of all 28 member states. If you are interested in selling your goods or services to EU governments and institutions, consult the TED database.
TED Tenders Electronic Daily , the online version of the supplement to the Official Journal of the European Union, lists up to 1, new contract notices published daily. Free of charge, TED provides access to:. SIMAP , the European government public procurement portal, provides access to all national-procurement databases. The EU procurement system is generally quite open and suppliers from outside the EU can bid on opportunities.
Media planning is generally outsourced to a media agency and entails sourcing and selecting optimal media platforms for a client's brand or product to use. The job of media planning is to determine the best combination of media to achieve the marketing campaign objectives. Choosing which media or type of advertising to use can be especially challenging for small firms with limited budgets and know-how.
Large-market television and newspapers are often too expensive for a company that services only a small area although local newspapers can be used. Magazines, unless local, usually cover too much territory to be cost-efficient for a small firm, although some national publications offer regional or city editions. Since the advent of social media, small firms with limited budgets may benefit from using Social Media advertising as it is cost effective, easy to manage, accurate and offers great ROI.
The fundamental purpose of a media plan is to determine the best way to convey a message to the target audience. A media plan sets out a systematic process that synchronizes all contributing elements in order to achieve this specific goal. The media plan is broken down into four stages; market analysis, establishment of media objectives, media strategy development and implementation, and evaluation and follow-up. Similarities can be made to other marketing concepts such as the consumer decision-making process with comparisons such as, increasing brand awareness and knowledge, improving brand image, and the maximization of customer satisfaction.
The first phase of any media plan is the initial market analysis, which consists of a situation analysis and the marketing strategy plan. These form the basis of information which the rest of the media plan is reliant on. For example, undertaking an internal and external review or competitive strategy evaluation.
The marketing strategy plan should establish specific objectives and goals that will solve the marketing problems that developed. Once the market analysis is complete the improved knowledge gained should indicate a proffered target market.
Enabling the marketers to understand where the prime advertising space would be to gain sufficient exposure, what factors effect that certain demographic, and how to promote to the audience effectively. The second phase in the media plan is the establishment of media objectives. Just as the marketing analysis lead to specific marketing objectives, this phase will result in explicit media objectives; such as creating a positive brand image through stimulating creativity.
These objectives should be limited to those that can only be obtained through media strategies. Media strategy development and implementation is the third phase and is the point in the process that is directly influenced by the actions from previously determined objectives.
The final phase in the media plan is to evaluate the effectiveness of the plan and determine what follow-up is required. It is important to assess whether each individual marketing and media objective was met, as if they were successful it will be beneficial to use a similar model in future plans. Reach and frequency are important aspects of an advertising plan and are used to analyze alternative advertising schedules to determine which produce the best results relative to the media plan's objectives.
Generally speaking, you will use reach when you are looking to increase your consumer base by getting more people buying your product and you will privilege frequency when you need to narrow down your communication to a more specific audience but need to increase the number of times they could be exposed to your message in order to generate a change in behavior. Calculate reach and frequency and then compare the two on the basis of how many people will be reached with each schedule and the number of times the ad will connect with the average person.
Let's say the ad appeared in each of four television programs A, B, C, D , and each program has a 20 rating, resulting in a total of 80 gross rating points. It's possible that some viewers will see more than one announcement—some viewers of program A might also see program B, C, or D, or any combination of them.
For example, in a population of TV homes, a total of 40 are exposed to one or more TV programs. The reach of the four programs combined is therefore 40 percent 40 homes reached divided by the TV-home population. Researchers have charted the reach achieved with different media schedules. These tabulations are put into formulas from which the level of delivery reach for any given schedule can be estimated.
A reach curve is the technical term describing how reach changes with increasing use of a medium. Now assume the same schedule of one commercial in each of four TV programs A, B, C, D to determine reach versus frequency.
In our example, 17 homes viewed only one program, 11 homes viewed two programs, seven viewed three programs, and five homes viewed all four programs. If we add the number of programs each home viewed, the 40 homes in total viewed the equivalent of 80 programs and therefore were exposed to the equivalent of 80 commercials.
By dividing 80 by 40, we establish that any one home was exposed to an average of two commercials. To increase reach, include additional media in the plan or expand the timing of the message. For example, if purchasing "drive time" on the radio, some daytime and evening spots will increase the audience.
To increase frequency, add spots or insertions to the schedule. For example, if running three insertions in a local magazine, increase that to six insertions so that the audience would be exposed to the ad more often.
Gross rating points GRPs are used to estimate broadcast reach and frequency from tabulations and formulas. Once the schedule delivery has been determined from reach curves, obtain the average frequency by dividing the GRPs by the reach. For example, GRPs divided by an 80 percent reach equals a 2. In media planning, reach is one of the most important factors, as the whole media planning is all about reach. And of course, higher exposure means high chances of new customers.
They Choose their target market on the assumption that they already know who their customers would be Ossi, Even though, choosing a target market for reach in media planning could be a very successful way to get to the potential customers of the brand, but this method leaves out potential customers outside of the target market; Customers the brand thought were not important to reach to Ossi,